Things you should know

Studies and reports:

The Relationship of the Amount of Physical Therapy to Time Lost From Work and Costs in the Workers’ Compensation System – Journal of Occupational Medicine

Finding: Injured workers who take time off work to recover, and whose treatment includes more than 15 sessions of physical therapy, are out of the workforce longer and are six times more likely to cost more.

Suicide and drug-related mortality following occupational injury – American Journal of Industrial Medicine

Finding: Workplace injury significantly raises a person’s risk of suicide or overdose death.

Fatal occupational injuries to independent workers – BLS

Finding: Fatalities among independent workers accounted for about 12% of all workplace deaths in 2016-2017, and independent workers have a disproportionately higher share of fatalities due to falls, slips and trips.

Interstate Variations in Dispensing of Opioids, 5th Edition – Workers Compensation Research Institute (WCRI)

Finding: In 27 states, fewer injured workers received opioids recently as compared with previous years. But, injured workers continue to be treated for pain, as non-opioid pain medications (e.g., NSAIDs) increased to a lesser degree and non-pharmacologic treatments (e.g., physical therapy) without pain medication were more frequently provided.

The effects of sleep on workplace cognitive failure and safety (Construction) – Oregon Healthy Workforce Center

Finding: Among construction workers, there is a connection between poor quality sleep and the risk of workplace incidents and injuries.

Calories Purchased by Hospital Employees After Implementation of a Cafeteria Traffic Light-Labeling and Choice Architecture Program – Massachusetts General Hospital

Finding: Implementation of a traffic light-labeling and choice architecture program was associated with a 6.2% decrease in calories per transaction over 2 years, including a 23.0% decrease in calories from the least healthy food.

Drug trends: Evaluating Opioids – Coventry

Finding: The prescribing of drugs meant to treat opioid use disorder increased 5.4% in 2018 among workers compensation claims and 1.8% of claims with high doses of opioids received naloxone – an anti-overdose medication – at almost double the amount from 2017.

2019 RIMS Benchmark Survey – Business Insurance

Finding: The average total cost of risk for businesses rose by 2.1% in 2018, reversing four years of declines.

Workplace Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure Among U.S. Nonsmoking Workers, 2015 – CDC

Finding: Nearly 1 out of 5 workers are exposed to secondhand smoke on the job. Results identify industries most at risk.

Commercial motor vehicle brake inspection event set for Sept. 15 – 21

Commercial motor vehicle inspectors throughout North America will perform brake system examinations Sept. 15-21 during the Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance’s annual Brake Safety Week. While special emphasis will be placed on brake hoses and tubing, inspectors also will be looking for other critical non-brake-related violations.

State News

California

  • The Workers Compensation Insurance Rating Bureau (WCIRB) proposed that the Jan. 1, 2020 rates be about 5.4% lower than the current advisory pure premium rates, or $1.58 per $100 of payroll.
  • WCRIB’s X-Mod estimator is now available for 2020 at https://www.wcirb.com/estimator.

Florida

  • National Council on Compensation Insurance (NCCI) filed a proposed 5.4% rate decrease with the Florida Office of Insurance Regulation, effective January 1, 2020.

Minnesota

  • The Department of Labor and Industry has adopted an expedited rulemaking process, and has published new rules governing treatment and compensation for post-traumatic stress disorder in first responders.

Missouri

  • Department of Labor and Industrial Relations has adopted several new rule changes regarding administrative law judges, review applications and more.

Nebraska

  • Hospitals, insurers, self-insured employers, risk-management pools and third-party administrators can now make reports electronically. FAQ’s are on the website.

Virginia

For Cutting-Edge Strategies on Managing Risks and Slashing Insurance Costs visit www.StopBeingFrustrated.com

12 mistakes employers make when an OSHA inspector knocks unexpectedly

Even well-prepared employers can panic when an OSHA inspector arrives unexpectedly at the door. Why are they here and are we really prepared?

While the chances of an inspection are small (there are about 8,000,000 workplaces and OSHA and its State Plans average about 73,000 annually), advance notice is rare. In fact, Compliance Safety & Health Officers (CSHO) are prohibited by law from providing employers with advanced notice of pending inspections, with limited exceptions (see p. 3-3 of field operations manual).

Employers who are ill-prepared for an inspection and make bad decisions during an inspection face unwelcome and costly fines. Even well-prepared employers find it difficult to escape an inspection without a citation – there is a 75% chance that at least one violation will be found.

Here are 12 mistakes commonly made by employers:

  1. Refuse to let OSHA enter the worksite. While most inspections are surprises, many experts and former inspectors advise against requiring a warrant. This is likely to bring enhanced scrutiny and create an adversarial tone. A cooperative attitude is important; however, this is a good time to negotiate the limit and scope of the inspection.
  2. Fail to consider the personality of the employee designated to meet with and accompany the inspector. While it’s critical the employee be knowledgeable and intimately familiar with the operations and safety policies of the business, personality and attitude play a major role. Someone who is defensive, arrogant, or a know-it-all is likely to irritate the CSHO. The inspector’s report includes a place to note lack of cooperation. And don’t designate someone who loves to talk and tell how wonderful the company is. It’s going to fall on deaf ears and they probably will volunteer too much information. Best to designate someone who is polite, professional, can stay focused, and who is confident and willing to ask questions.
  3. Don’t have a backup for the designated employee. Inspectors will wait a “reasonable” amount of time – usually a half hour to an hour. While that might be a good opportunity to correct some small hazards and tidy up housekeeping, delaying the inspection will be noted on the form and it’s unlikely anything you do in that time is going to make a significant difference.
  4. Fail to limit the scope of the inspection. This is perhaps most important. Employers have a right to know the purpose of the inspection and to have a “reasonable inspection” at a “reasonable time.” Employers should insist on an opening conference when the CSHO explains the reason for the inspection and the employer can negotiate the scope. It’s also an opportunity to ask questions and to try to establish ground rules about how the inspection will proceed, including interviews, collection of documents, and the physical access to the facility.

    Some inspections, such as those under the Site-Specific Targeting Enforcement Program, can be wall-to-wall but most unprogrammed inspections can be limited. If the inspection was prompted by an employee complaint, the employer has a right to see the complaint and limit the inspection to related areas. If the CSHO is there to investigate an incident, take the most direct route to the site of the incident. Minimize exposure to the rest of the facility. Everything inspectors see is fair game for citations, such a missing handrails, poor housekeeping, improper signage, fire extinguishers, etc. If an officer tries to do a wall-to-wall inspection when there is a specific reason for the inspection, the employer should push back.

  5. Don’t know the criteria for emphasis program or compliance directive inspections. If there is a programmed inspection under an emphasis program or compliance directive, an employer can refuse, if they know they don’t fit the criteria.
  6. Don’t replicate the photos, videos, and notes the inspector makes. It’s important to escort the CSHO at all times and to mirror the actions of the inspector during the walkthrough. Take the same photos, videos, notes, measurements, sampling etc. so you have a clear record of what they captured. OSHA has a six-month statute of limitations to issue citations.
  7. Admit to violations. There may be violations pointed out during a walk through. For example, if an inspector points out an unguarded machine, say you will address it, but don’t admit the violation or try to go into a lengthy explanation of why it is not guarded.
  8. Don’t insist that document requests be in writing. At the opening conference, it’s best to agree that document requests, except OSHA Recordkeeping forms, be made in writing (it can be handwritten) so that there is no confusion over what documents are being requested and so that the employer is not cited for failure to produce a document it did not believe was requested. It is important to remember that the employer has no duty to produce certain documents (e.g., post-accident investigations, insurance audits, consultant reports, employee personnel information) if a regulation does not require such production. Any documents produced can be utilized to issue citations. If you don’t have the document, say so. Don’t rush to produce a new document.

    While not a comprehensive list, long-time OSHA employee and Area Director John Newquist recently published the “Scary 13” – documents employers can’t produce during an inspection – in The National Safety Council’s June Safety Health magazine.

  9. Don’t protect their trade secrets and business confidential information from disclosure to third parties. This is an employer’s right, but it is critical to keep a record and identify the documents as confidential.
  10. Don’t sit in on management interviews. A supervisor’s comments are imputed to the employer and, for this reason, employers have the right to and should be present and participate in interviews of management, regardless of whether the manager wants the representative there. That right does not exist with non-management employees, but it’s important for employees to know their rights about interviews and that they will not suffer adverse employment actions. While it’s important to be careful not to coerce, intimidate, or influence, employers can prepare employees for interviews. Also, the employer can request that “on floor” interviews be limited to five-minutes on production and processes. Employers should attempt to schedule more extensive interviews about training, background, etc. that should take place in a conference room with a table and chairs, but no white boards or documents present.
  11. Consider only the cost of the penalty. Employers have the critical right to contest OSHA’s citations, but some employers want to move on quickly, and consider only the monetary amount when deciding whether to contest, particularly when the cost is low. A recent webinar, Prepare for and Manage an OSHA Inspection by the Conn Maciel Carey law group, notes that there are several goals an employer should consider before accepting a citation, as well as strategies to reduce the impact. Accepting a citation can open the door to future, more costly repeat violations ($132,598), impact civil wrongful death or personal injury actions, affect bidding, harm customer and employee relationships, increase possibilities of being placed in the Severe Violators Enforcement Program, and affect insurance costs and coverage.
  12. Don’t immediately correct hazards, when possible. The closing conference usually takes place one to six weeks after the inspection. This is a good time to demonstrate cooperation by showing that hazards identified during the inspection have been corrected or abated.

For Cutting-Edge Strategies on Managing Risks and Slashing Insurance Costs visit www.StopBeingFrustrated.com

Things you should know

Deadline to submit pay data to EEOC extended

A federal court judge has granted the EEOC’s request to extend the deadline for employers to report equal pay data (known as Component 2) of the EEO-1 to September 30, 2019. Notice has been posted on the EEOC website.

Preventing falls in construction: NIOSH issues fact sheet

NIOSH has published a new fact sheet intended to help construction employers and workers prevent falls from roofs, ladders, and scaffolds.

FMCSA webpage answers FAQs on upcoming database of CMV drivers who fail drug, alcohol tests

The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) has created a webpage that outlines specifics of the Drug and Alcohol Clearinghouse, a national online database intended to provide – in real time – the names of commercial motor vehicle drivers who have failed drug and alcohol tests.

‘Dirty Dozen’ list of workplace safety violators released

The National Council for Occupational Safety and Health (NCOSH) released its 2019 “dirty dozen” companies that the organization says failed to protect workers from preventable illness, injury and death.

This year’s list includes:

  • Amazon.com Inc., Seattle
  • Atlantic Capes Fisheries Co., Cape May, New Jersey, and the staffing firm it uses, B.J.’s Service Co Inc., New Bedford, Massachusetts
  • Bedrock Detroit LLC, Detroit
  • Beiza Brothers Harvesting LLC, Moultrie, Georgia
  • Facebook Inc., Menlo Park, California, along with contractors Accenture PLC, Cognizant Technology Solutions Corp., PRO Unlimited Inc. and Tech Solutions Co.
  • Genan Inc., Houston
  • Integra Health Management Inc., Timonium, Maryland
  • The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore
  • McDonald’s USA LLC, Oak Brook, Illinois
  • Purdue Pharmaceuticals LP, Stamford, Connecticut, and the opioid industry
  • Tooma Enterprises Inc., Sterling Heights, Michigan
  • XPO Logistics, Greenwich, Connecticut

 

Report on women and safety in the workplace

The American Society of Safety Professionals (ASSP) released a report on women and safety in the modern workplace. The report focuses on three main challenges faced by women and offers potential solutions.

WCRI releases comp state trends reports

The 18 states in the CompScope report are Arkansas, California, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia and Wisconsin.

According to an article in Business Insurance, key findings include:

  • The median indemnity costs per claim across the states for three years starting in 2015 was $17,778, with North Carolina, Pennsylvania and Georgia ranked in the top three and Wisconsin, Indiana and Texas in the bottom three.
  • The median cost per claim with more than seven days lost time between 2015 and 2018 was $41,888, with Louisiana, Pennsylvania and Virginia ranked in the top three and Minnesota, Tennessee and Texas in the bottom three.
  • The median medical payments per claim in 2017 was $13,524, with Wisconsin, Virginia, and Indiana ranked in the top three and Massachusetts, California and Texas ranked in the bottom three.
  • Twenty-nine percent was the median percentage of 2015 claims with more than seven days of lost time and 36 months of experience that had a defense attorney involved. Among the states with the highest attorney involvement were Illinois, New Jersey and California. Those with the lowest were Texas, Wisconsin and Minnesota.

New resource to help employers understand mental health issues

The DOL, in coordination with the Office of Disability Employment Policy (ODEP) and its Employer Assistance and Resource Network on Disability Inclusion (EARN), has launched a new resource, Mental Health Toolkit to help employers better understand mental health issues and to provide guidance on how to cultivate a supportive workplace.

Workers’ marijuana use major contributor to rise in positive drug tests, analysis shows

The rate of positive drug tests for illicit substances among U.S. workers in 2018 reached a 14-year peak, with marijuana playing a significant role, according to the annual Drug Testing Index from lab services provider Quest Diagnostics.

Researchers found that 4.4% of the combined U.S. workforce tested positive – up from 4.2% in 2017 and 2016 and the highest since 2004 when the rate was 4.5%. “Post-accident” positive tests showed rate increases: to 8.4% from 7.7% in 2017 among employees in the general workforce, and to 4.7% from 3.1% among workers in safety-sensitive jobs.

Boom lift scenario now part of NIOSH simulation tool

NIOSH has added a boom lift scenario to its Aerial Lift Hazard Recognition Simulator.

The training tool includes a scissor lift operation simulation, provides realistic workplace scenarios “to help potential aerial lift operators acclimate to aerial lift operation and to identify the common occupational hazards during use,” but is not intended to be a replacement for required training.

Protecting first responders from fentanyl exposure: NIOSH releases video

NIOSH has released a 13-minute video intended to protect first responders who face potential exposure to fentanyl – a synthetic opioid considered up to 50 times more potent than heroin – and other illicit drugs.

State News

California

  • The number of independent medical review determination letters calling for review of treatment denials and modifications peaked to 184,733 in 2018, 7.3% more than in 2017 according to the California Workers’ Compensation Research Institute. Full report.
  • 55% of medical bill reviews were overturned according to a report by the California Department of Industrial Relations.
  • The Workers’ Compensation Insurance Rating Bureau determined that the modest improvement in pure premium workers’ compensation rates so far in 2019 does not warrant a midyear filing.

New York

  • The New York State Workers’ Compensation Board announced that the maximum weekly wage benefit rate will climb, from $905 to $934, effective July 1.

Pennsylvania

  • Insurance Commissioner approved a nearly 13% reduction in loss costs for workers compensation insurance.

For Cutting-Edge Strategies on Managing Risks and Slashing Insurance Costs visit www.StopBeingFrustrated.com

OSHA watch

Anti-retaliation provisions of electronic record-keeping rule survives employer challenge

An Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission (OSHRC) administrative law judge’s decision to reject two defenses offered by the U.S. Postal Service to a citation preserves the controversial anti-retaliation provisions under its electronic record-keeping rule. The USPS allegedly issued a seven-day working suspension to a carrier because he reported a work-related injury. The USPS argued that the alleged standard and/or penalties were invalid because they were beyond the legal power or authority of OSHA and/or were arbitrary and capricious.

Process Safety Management standard extended beyond hazardous chemicals in ruling

Legal experts warn that a recent OSHRC ruling regarding safety violations in a deadly oil refinery explosion in 2012 could have wider implications for companies dealing with highly hazardous chemicals. OSHRC affirmed 12 violations of Process Safety Management standard by Wynnewood Refining Co, which argued the PSM was never intended to include processes that do not manage such chemicals – such as the steam boiler involved.

Prior to this ruling, it was widely understood that utilities unrelated to the manufacturing process were not included in the requirements for PSM. Experts say it is unclear how far the standard extends now.

Social media campaign to educate young workers

#MySafeSummerJob, a social media campaign to educate young workers about their rights in the workplace, how to speak up about dangerous work conditions, and how to protect themselves on the job, was launched in concert with several worker safety organizations. From April 15 through May 17 outreach will promote safety among young workers. Check out materials and ideas at the #MySafeSummerJob website.

Regional construction safety campaign shifts focus to falls

In concert with the Mid-Atlantic Construction Safety Council, a four-month campaign was launched to address the four leading causes of fatal injuries in construction. In March, the campaign focused on electrical hazards, and during April the emphasis was on struck-by hazards. This month is falls, and caught-in / between hazards will be the focus in June. The campaign serves employers and employees in Delaware, the District of Columbia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia.

Email OSHA-Focus4-Region3@dol.gov for more information.

OSHRC finalizes revisions to its procedural rules

The OSHRC has finalized what it calls “comprehensive” revisions to its procedural rules, in part to reflect technological advances. Slated to take effect June 10, the changes include mandatory electronic filing for “represented” parties and a new method intended to streamline calculating time periods.

Proposal to watch: joint employer revisions

The Department of Labor announced a proposal to “revise and clarify” the issue of joint employers. The department is proposing a four-factor test “based on well-established precedent” that would consider whether the potential joint employer actually exercises the power to hire or fire the employee; supervise and control the employee’s work schedules or conditions of employment; determine the employee’s rate and method of payment; and maintain the employee’s employment records.

The proposal could differ from the interpretations put forth by other federal agencies and would not nullify regulations promulgated by individual states that have different standards.

The public has 60 days from April 1 to comment on the proposal.

Webpage on radiation emergency preparedness and response launched

A webpage intended to educate workers about how to protect themselves in radiation-related situations ranging from a small, isolated spill in a laboratory to a potentially catastrophic release at a nuclear facility is now live. The Radiation Emergency Preparedness and Response webpage provides resources on health and safety planning, medical monitoring and dosimetry, and other relevant topics for workers “who may be impacted by radiation emergencies” or “who may be involved in emergency response operations or related activities.”

Cal/OSHA proposing to re-adopt emergency rules for e-filing injury reports

Emergency rules were adopted Nov. 1, 2018 and the re-adoption would give additional time to proceed with regular rulemaking on a permanent basis. In addition to requiring electronic reporting for companies with at least 250 workers, the rules require businesses with 20 to 249 employees in industries such as construction, manufacturing and agriculture to electronically file injury logs.

A notice for proposed permanent rules is expected to be published by May 10.

MIOSHA launches emphasis program on roadway accident

The state emphasis program on roadway accidents will run through December 31, 2019 and is intended to increase the priority of inspections related to construction roadway safety and initiate inspections upon observing a roadway project with workers present.

Enforcement notes

California

  • Cal North Farm Labor Inc., a farm labor contractor and Crain Walnut Shelling Inc. face more than $100,000 combined in proposed penalties after a worker was fatally crushed by a bin dumper at a walnut processing and packing facility in Los Molinos.
  • Staffing agency Priority Workforce Inc. and JSL Foods Inc., a maker and distributor of pasta and baked goods face more than $300,000 in fines for serious citations after a temporary worker lost two fingers cleaning machinery at a Los Angeles food manufacturing facility.
  • Accurate Comfort Systems Inc. received four citations and faces $75,750 in penalties after a worker suffered serious injuries in a fall from a ladder on a 12-foot-high work area.

Florida

  • Inspected as part of the Regional Emphasis Program on Falls in Construction, Florida Roofing Experts, Inc. faces $132,598 in fines after inspectors observed workers performing residential roofing activities without fall protection.

Georgia

  • Investigated under the National Emphasis Program on Trenching and Excavation, Riverside Military Academy Inc., a military college preparatory academy in Gainesville, was cited for exposing employees to trenching hazards, faces $381,882 in penalties, and was placed in the Severe Violator Enforcement Program. Citations included allowing employees to work inside a trench without cave-in protection and a safe means to enter and exit the excavation, and failing to locate underground utilities prior to work.
  • Specialty chemical manufacturer, Plaze Aeroscience, operating as Plaze GA, was cited for exposing employees to fire and burn hazards at the company’s facility in Dalton and faces $107,164 in penalties.

Michigan

  • Mt. Clemens-based Powder Cote II received seven citations and faces $65,000 in penalties for failing to provide fall protection or guardrail systems, guard rotating shafts and machinery, and failing to control the startup of machinery during maintenance.

New York

  • Remington Arms, LLC, based in Madison, North Carolina was cited for 27 violations of workplace safety and health standards and faces $210,132 in penalties after a worker’s fingertip was amputated while using an unguarded metalworking machine at its Ilion manufacturing plant.

Pennsylvania

  • Framing contractor, Navy Contractors, Inc. was cited for willfully exposing employees to fall hazards at residential construction sites in Royersford, Collegeville, and Center Valley after inspections saw employees working without fall protection. The company faces $603,850 in penalties.
  • A jury in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District has found that Lloyd Industries Inc., a manufacturing company based in Montgomeryville, and its owner William P. Lloyd unlawfully terminated two employees because of their involvement in a safety investigation. Damages will be determined in phase 2 of the trial.
  • A jury has concurred with the findings of a whistleblower investigation and awarded $40,000 for lost wages, pain and suffering, and punitive damages to a former employee of Fairmount Foundry Inc. The employee claimed that the Hamburg iron-casting company terminated him for reporting alleged safety and health hazards.
  • New Jersey contractor, Brutus Construction, Inc. was cited for exposing workers to fall hazards at a Souderton residential construction site. Inspectors saw employees working on roofs without fall protection and the company faces nearly $182,000 in penalties.

Wisconsin

  • A follow-up inspection revealed that Beloit-based Avid Pallet Services, LLC, failed to correct violations related to wood dust and respiratory hazards. The company faces penalties of $188,302.

For additional information.

For Cutting-Edge Strategies on Managing Risks and Slashing Insurance Costs visit www.StopBeingFrustrated.com

Employee behavior and heat-related illness: 5 problem-solutions

Educational campaigns and accessible resources coupled with technology and meteorology precision have made it possible for employers to provide site-specific weather information and the proper resources and training for employees to combat the risk of heat exposures. Tools such as OSHA’s heat index app calculate the heat index for the worksite, display a risk level for workers, and provide reminders about the protective measures that should be taken at that risk level.

Yet, every year thousands of workers suffer from heat illness and some die. Why?

In some cases, it’s organizational factors such as indifferent or callous supervision, poor workplace conditions, and unrealistic production expectations, which reflect the company’s overarching culture. Yet, many employers are proactive and do an excellent job in training employees and implementing procedures to prevent heat stress that aren’t followed by some employees.

Here are five problem-solutions related to employee behavior and heat stress:

  1. Problem: Risk perceptionSome employees simply underestimate how serious heat illness can be. They’ve worked in the heat before without incident – been there, done that – can’t happen to them. Moreover, the symptoms of heat illness can be subtle and misinterpreted as mere annoyances rather than signs of a serious health issue.

    That’s why the American Society of Safety Engineers calls heat the “unseen danger” at construction sites. If a heat rash appears or a cramp develops, workers can dismiss them as an inconvenience and continue working without applying a powder or getting water or a sports drink. Even signs of heat exhaustion such as thirst, heavy sweating, headache, nausea, dizziness, and irritability can be interpreted as being tired from working in the sun.

    Potential solutions: Make rest and shade breaks mandatory, pre-shift reminders about the symptoms of heat stress, foster a ‘stop and think’ culture, buddy system, make sure employees are aware of the worst-case scenario, and use testimonials and share previous incidents to heighten awareness.

  2. Problem: Don’t understand hydrationDehydration not only leads to heat stress but also impairs visual motor tracking, short-term memory, and concentration leading to work-related accidents. Most workers know that staying hydrated is critical when working in hot and humid environments.

    But “staying hydrated” means different things to different people. To some, it means waiting until they are thirsty to drink. To others, it means grabbing an ice-cold soda loaded with sugar.

    As a general guideline, the recommended amount of water intake is one quart per hour (ideally one cup every 15 minutes) of active work for the average adult. However, every worker is different. Workers with underlying medical conditions or those who are new to the work environment have unique hydration requirements.

    Potential solutions: Have water easily and readily available, provide reusable water bottles, enforce breaks, educate with detailed information about how to hydrate (frequency, water vs.sports drinks, predisposing medical factors, effects of diet, drinking alcohol) and the symptoms of dehydration, and issue frequent reminders and weather alerts throughout the day.

  3. Problem: Inexperienced workersSummer work means many young and inexperienced workers and OSHA statistics prove that these workers are particularly vulnerable to heat-related illnesses. Whether it’s lack of knowledge, an immature attitude, fear, a desire to fit in and prove their worth, or an invincible mindset, some young workers try to side-step an acclimatization program and keep up with more seasoned workers with deadly results.

    Potential solutions: Have a mentoring program, tailor training, establish consequences for failure to follow rules, and consistently interact with workers to gauge how they’re feeling.

  4. Problem: Heat illness mythsEven well-trained employees can fall back on myths, misconceptions, and inaccuracies in the “heat” of the moment. Some common myths are:
    • When you’re having heat stroke, you don’t sweat
    • Acclimatization will protect you during a heat wave
    • Salt tablets are a good way to restore electrolytes lost during sweating
    • Off-duty drinking and diet do not adversely affect the ability to manage job-related heat
    • Medications/health conditions will not affect the ability to work safely in heat

    Potential solutions: To debunk myths, employees need to understand them. Make them a part of ongoing training.

  5. Problem: Bantering and sense of controlBanter is commonplace in many physically demanding jobs. Good-natured joshing and jibing can reduce stress and help to build strong teams. Yet, when bantering moves to rough-and-tumble horseplay or bullying it can lead to dire consequences. When workers are made to feel that needing a break is a sign of weakness – “don’t be a wimp,” “man-up” – a critical line is crossed.

    Potential solutions: How workers perceive the ease or consequences of horseplay or bullying is a key factor. All organizations should make clear what is acceptable and set clear boundaries. Importantly, drill home the message that workers are responsible for each other’s safety and make sure supervisors walk the talk.

For Cutting-Edge Strategies on Managing Risks and Slashing Insurance Costs visit www.StopBeingFrustrated.com

OSHA watch

“Good-faith” employers get grace period to comply on crane operator documentation requirements

The requirement that employers must evaluate their operators before allowing them to operate cranes independently is being enforced, but employers making good-faith efforts to comply have a 60-day grace period, according to the enforcement guidance effective on Feb. 7. Employers who have evaluated operators in accordance with the final rule, and are making good-faith efforts to comply with the new documentation requirement are offered compliance assistance, in lieu of enforcement. The grace period ends April 15.

New bulletin for workers wearing devices containing lithium batteries

A new Safety and Health Information Bulletin warns employers and workers of potential fire and explosion hazards stemming from lithium batteries used to power small or wearable electronic devices.

New video on ammonium nitrate emphasis program

A new YouTube video deals with inspections under the ammonium nitrate emphasis program.

Employers urged to prevent worker exposure to carbon monoxide

Employers are reminded to take necessary precautions to protect workers from the potentially fatal effects of carbon monoxide exposure. To reduce the risk of exposure, employers should install an effective ventilation system, use carbon monoxide detectors, and take other precautions as described in the Carbon Monoxide Fact Sheet.

Other resources include videos (in English and Spanish), QuickCards (English) (Spanish)and a fact sheet on portable generator safety.

Alert to Nebraska employers: Increase in amputation injuries

A review of Nebraska workers’ compensation claims found 42 employees suffered amputation injuries in 2018, and employers failed to report more than 65 percent of those injuries within 24-hours, as required. The National Emphasis Program for Amputations targets inspections at workplaces with machinery and equipment that cause, or are capable of causing, amputations. Information and resources are available to help employers identify and eliminate workplace hazard.

Enforcement notes

California

  • Solus Industrial Innovations, a plastics manufacturing plant in Rancho Santa Margarita was cited for willfully, knowingly and intentionally maintaining an unsafe and hazardous work environment after two workers were killed in an explosion caused by a water heater that was never intended for commercial use. The case was referred to the local district attorney’s office and a $1.6 million judgment was obtained in a civil case.
  • Platinum Pipeline Inc., based in Livermore, received a $242,600 fine after a worker died when a trench built for a storm drain project collapsed.
  • A joint venture of Shimmick Construction Co. Inc., of Oakland and San Francisco-based Con-Quest Contractors Inc. faces a $65,300 fine after a worker was fatally struck by a steel beam in 2018 while working on a light rail tunnel project in San Francisco.

Connecticut

  • The U.S. District Court for the District of Connecticut ordered Eastern Awning Systems Inc., a manufacturer of retractable fabric patio awnings based in Watertown, and its owner Stephen P. Lukos to pay a total of $160,000 to two discharged employees who filed safety and health complaints. The judgment also requires the employer to provide neutral letters of reference for the two discharged employees, and to post the judgment and notice of employees’ rights prominently at the workplace.

Florida

  • Inspected under the Regional Emphasis Program for Falls in Construction, Crown Roofing LLC was cited for exposing employees to fall hazards at two separate residential worksites in Port St. Lucie and Naples. The Sarasota-based contractor faces penalties of $265,196. It has been inspected 17 times in the past five years and 11 inspections have resulted in repeat violations.
  • OSHRC affirmed two serious violations, and reinstated one stemming from an inspection of gas line work – overturning an administrative law judge’s decision – and increased the fine from $5,500 to $9,000 against Dade City-based Florida Gas Contractors Inc.

Georgia

  • Hilti Inc., a hardware merchant wholesaler, was cited for exposing employees to struck-by hazards after an employee was injured while operating a forklift at a distribution center in Atlanta. The Plano, Texas-based company faces penalties of $164,802.
  • Eye Productions Inc., a motion picture company, was cited for failing to provide adequate head protection during stunts while filming the “MacGyver” show in Chattahoochee Hills. Proposed penalties total $9,472.

Massachusetts

  • In Secretary of Labor v. HRI Hospital Inc. d/b/a Arbour-HRI Hospital, an administrative law judge vacated a citation that HRI Hospital Inc., based in Brookline, failed to adequately protect its employees from being physically assaulted by patients.

Minnesota

  • In Secretary of Labor v. SJ Louis Construction of Texas Ltd. (a division of SJ Louis Construction Inc., of Rockville, Minnesota), the ALJ determined that SJ Louis, an underground utilities contractor, failed to construct a trench in Cypress, Texas, in compliance with regulations and failed to provide employees proper egress. A penalty of $36,000 was assessed.

Pennsylvania

  • U.S. District Court for the Eastern District has entered a consent judgment ordering Blown Away Dry Bar and Salon, based in Kennett Square, to pay a $40,000 settlement to a fired hair stylist. Investigators determined the defendants retaliated against the employee when her husband reported workplace safety and health hazards to OSHA, a violation of the (OSH) Act.
  • An administrative law judge of the OSHRC affirmed a general duty clause citation against Brooke Glen Behavioral Hospital’s facility in Fort Washington for exposing its employees to workplace violence, as well as a $12,471 penalty.
  • KidsPeace Inc. was cited for exposing employees to workplace violence hazards at two behavioral and mental health facilities in Orefield. The company faces proposed penalties totaling $29,010.

Tennessee

  • Hankook Tire Company received 11 citations and faces $85,200 in penalties for failure to conduct periodic crane inspections, provide adequate personal protective equipment for workers handling hazardous chemicals, ensure that proper lockout/tagout procedures were followed, and guard machinery.

For additional information.

For Cutting-Edge Strategies on Managing Risks and Slashing Insurance Costs visit www.StopBeingFrustrated.com

OSHA watch

Compliance date for parts of general industry beryllium standard delayed

The compliance date for certain ancillary provisions in the beryllium standard for general industry is extended to December 12, 2018. The final rule published in the Aug. 9 Federal Register, states that the compliance date applies to requirements for methods of compliance, beryllium work areas, regulated areas, personal protective clothing and equipment, hygiene facilities and practices, housekeeping, communication of hazards, and recordkeeping.

New compliance assistance resources available for Silica Standard

  • A customizable slide presentation can be used to help train construction workers.
  • A five-minute video shows how to protect workers from exposure to silica dust.
  • A series of short videos demonstrates the proper use of specified dust control methods for six common construction tasks.
  • An FAQ page provides answers to frequently asked questions about the Respirable Crystalline Silica Standard for Construction.

Tips on forklift safety and maintenance

New QuickCards are available in English and Spanish to aid employees and employers in the safe operation and proper maintenance of forklifts.

Guidance explains how to use the 300 log to look for trends

That was no accident encourages employers to use the 300 Log not just as a paperwork exercise or a way to look at past performance, but as part of a company’s road map to finding and fixing hazards.

Redesigned regulations webpage provides easier navigation

The Law and Regulations webpage that features information on standards and rulemaking now can be searched by keyword or number and includes the latest updates on active rulemaking. The page also features information buttons to explain regulatory language that may be unfamiliar to some users.

Free workplace violence prevention webinar available online

A free 60-minute webinar on preventing workplace violence in healthcare settings is available from The Joint Commission, a long-standing national alliance partner. The webinar includes an overview of Guidelines for Preventing Workplace Violence for Healthcare and Social Service Workers, as well as a discussion of a multi-hospital intervention study that reduced violent events.

Name-and-shame strategy still prevalent in news releases

While the rate of releasing public statements about enforcement actions taken against employers is significantly lower under the Trump administration than the Obama administration (463 a year to about 150), the tone in these press releases has not changed. Most include harsh and embarrassing quotations from senior officials. Stakeholders argue that the press releases are based merely on allegations of violations and are published prior to companies being afforded a hearing.

Enforcement notes

California

  • Roofing contractor, Petersen-Dean, Inc., faces $146,004 in fines for repeat violations of exposing workers to fall hazards.
  • New York-based Outfront Media Inc, an outdoor advertising company, faces proposed penalties of $32,435 for serious safety violations after a worker suffered third-degree burns as well as an inadequate heat illness prevention plan for its outdoor workers.

Florida

  • G&H Underground Construction faces $57,738 in proposed penalties for allowing the use of unguarded machines after an employee suffered a throat laceration at a worksite in St. Augustine.
  • Archer Western Construction Inc., an Atlanta-based company, faces $33,259 in proposed fines for safety violations after two employees suffered fatal injuries while performing trenching activities at a Miami worksite.
  • The Holly Hill-based paving company, Pavemax Corp. faces $16,814 in proposed fines for safety violations after an employee suffered fatal injuries at an Orange City worksite, including failure to train and provide a place of employment free from recognized hazards.

Illinois

  • HB Fuller Company, operating as Adhesive Systems Inc., faces $587,564 in proposed penalties for 18 health and safety violations at its facility in Frankfort. The company was cited for failing to: provide employees with respirator fit tests and respirators appropriate for hazardous atmospheres; require bonding and grounding when transferring flammable liquids; ensure that electrical equipment was approved for use in hazardous atmospheres; and conduct a personal protective equipment assessment.

Mississippi

  • After Nissan North America Inc. contested two violations, an administrative law judge of the OSHRC vacated one serious citation but affirmed the other and assessed a $12,675 penalty. The law judge affirmed the violation of training requirements in an employer’s energy control program after determining that the evidence established that the exposure was reasonably predictable and training the technicians was required.

New York

  • The OSHRC affirmed two serious citations previously vacated by an administrative law judge against a commercial laundry facility, Angelica Textile Services Inc., in Ballston Spa. A single grouped penalty of $7,000 was assessed for inadequate isolation and verification procedures for a permit required confined space and of lockout/tagout procedures. However, the review commission reclassified the penalties as serious rather than repeat violations.

Pennsylvania

  • Grove U.S. LLC. was cited for exposing workers to struck-by hazards after three employees suffered fatal injuries when a 300-ton crane collapsed at the company’s Shady Grove facility. The company faces proposed penalties totaling $14,976, the maximum amount allowed.

Tennessee

  • Day & Zimmerman NPS Inc. faces $71,599 in proposed penalties for exposing employees to electric shock hazards at the Tennessee Valley Authority Sequoyah Nuclear Power Plant in Soddy Daisy.
  • Specialty Tires of Unicoi faces $6,000 in fines after a mechanic was killed when he was caught in the moving arms of an assembly machine. The company was cited for failure to have an energy control procedure and failure to conduct regular inspections of an energy control program and ensuring that employees understand and comply with such a program.
  • M&K Home Improvement faces $51,200 in penalties for exposing workers to fall hazards.

For more information.

For Cutting-Edge Strategies on Managing Risks and Slashing Insurance Costs visit www.StopBeingFrustrated.com

The forgotten question in PPE training

Even employers who have carefully researched the options, involved employees in the selection of PPE, and ensured that it is comfortable, attractive, and fits properly, still struggle to get workers to use it. Training often focuses on how to properly wear PPE, when it should be worn, the limitations, how to care for it, and how to determine if it is damaged.

Missing or generalized is the question, “Why?” A common reason PPE is not used is the employees do not think about it because they are rushed or tired or they believe it is not necessary for the task. Employees may have performed the same task for many years and have never been injured. In their mind, there is no compelling reason to use it.

Many people don’t like reading big chunks of text or listening to boring PowerPoint presentations, so you might want to rethink your training program. In this digital age, there are countless resources for case studies, visuals, and videos relating to PPE. Personal accounts from people who have suffered injuries or illness when not wearing PPE are most effective when they are relevant, concise, and compelling.

Be selective… don’t focus on fear mongering or cheesy humor that can trivialize the importance of PPE. Humor can be effective, when it fits the situation. Sending employees a periodic email or text with a visual or video is a good way to supplement regular toolbox talks on PPE and keep it top if mind.

The message should not be one of compliance but why employees shouldn’t let their guard down – how quickly accidents can happen, how wearing PPE can protect against other people’s mistakes, and how it isn’t just about them – it’s about their future, family, co-workers, friends, and even pets, etc. Make it urgent and appeal to them with compelling stories. It can also be helpful to have a bulletin board in the staff room or where workers store their PPE. Encourage people to pin pictures of family, friends, pets, or whatever motivates them to stay safe every day.

It’s important to stay focused on changing the desired behavior. If someone is not wearing PPE, they should be asked “Why?” and a dialogue begun. Ultimately, the goal is to transform PPE use into an unconscious habit.

For Cutting-Edge Strategies on Managing Risks and Slashing Insurance Costs visit www.StopBeingFrustrated.com

OSHA watch

Silica safety enforcement ramped up at construction sites

Since compliance requirements took effect Sept. 23, 2017, there have been 116 alleged silica violations at companies as of April 17, a Bloomberg Environment analysis of agency records show. The number of violations in the initial six months is likely to increase since it can take up to six months after an inspection to issue citations. A common misunderstanding of Table 1 among small contractors is that using respirators is the first option. Respirators are acceptable protection, but contractors are expected to first change construction methods or tools to reduce the amount of silica that becomes airborne.

Of the 116 silica violations cited, the most frequently mentioned provision was employers failing to measure silica exposure levels (29 C.F.R. 1926.1153(d)(2)(i)). Almost as frequently cited is incorrectly following Table 1’s procedures (29 C.F.R. 1926.1153 (c)(1)), intended to reduce silica exposure. Eighty percent of the cases were classified as serious violations.

Direct final rule revising Beryllium Standard for general industry issued

While enforcement of certain provisions of the beryllium rule began on May 11, the compliance date for the beryllium standard for general industry was extended and certain ancillary provisions in the final rule changed as a result of a settlement agreement with four petitioners.

The direct final rule clarifies certain definitions and provisions for disposal/recycling, along with those that apply in cases of potential skin exposure to materials containing at least 0.1 percent beryllium by weight. The direct final rule will go into effect July 4, “unless the agency receives significant adverse comments by June 4,” according to a press release.

New flier offers steps to keep tractor trailer drivers safe at destination

Developed in concert with the trucking industry, a new flier addresses the most common hazards for drivers after they reach their destination: parking, backing up, and coupling (attaching) and uncoupling (detaching) vehicles.

List of authorized outreach trainers now available online

The website now has a searchable list of authorized Outreach trainers to assist the public in finding authorized instructors for the 10- and 30-hour Outreach classes.

Mid-Atlantic regional construction safety campaign shifts focus to falls

The four-month campaign in the Mid-Atlantic states to address the four leading causes of fatal injuries in construction will focus on falls in May. Caught-in/-between hazards is the focus in June.

Enforcement notes

California

  • Mr. Good Vape LLC of Chino, was ordered to reinstate a former manager and pay $110,000 in compensation after he was fired for claiming the company’s production of flavored liquids for e-cigarette vapor inhalers violated federal environmental law.
  • California Premier Roofscapes Inc. was cited for repeat violations of fall protection safety orders and faces proposed $134,454 in penalties.

Florida

  • An administrative law judge of the OSHRC downgraded a citation issued against Ocala-based Jody Wilson Construction Inc. from willful to serious and reduced the penalty from $49,000 to $2,800, noting the contractor had attempted to comply with the standard, albeit incorrectly.

Georgia

  • In a settlement in a whistleblower case, Jasper Contractors, headquartered in Kennesaw, but performing roofing work in Florida, agreed to pay an employee $48,000 in back wages and compensatory damages.

Massachusetts

  • In a settlement with Lynnway Auto Auction Inc., the Billerica facility agreed to correct hazards, implement significant safety measures, and pay $200,000 in penalties, following a May 2017 incident in which a sport utility vehicle fatally struck five people during an auto auction.

Michigan

  • Grand Rapids-based excavation contractor Kamphuis Pipeline Co. faces proposed penalties of $454,750 for exposing employees to trench cave-ins and other serious hazards while installing water metering pits and lines at a North Dakota municipal project.
  • RSB Construction Services LLC, in Goodrich, faces $147,000 in penalties for failing to train workers on fall hazards, and provide required guardrail, safety net, or personal fall arrest systems for workers on a pitched metal roof.

Mississippi

  • An administrative law judge of the OSHRC affirmed two items of a serious citation issued to Southern Hens after an employee’s partial thumb amputation, but vacated a third item, noting the standard is concerned with the ‘how’ of the lockout procedures, not the ‘when.’ The penalty was reduced from $19,134 to $12,000.

Nebraska

  • Contractor Premier Underground LLC was cited for failing to protect its workers from excavation collapse hazards. The company faces proposed penalties of $46,930.
  • Omaha-based plumbing contractor Gavrooden Inc., doing business as Mr. Rooter Plumbing, was cited for the second time in less than six months for failing to protect its workers from excavation collapse hazards. Proposed penalties are $38,061.

Pennsylvania

  • The OSHRC has reversed an administrative law judge’s decision to vacate a one-item serious citation with a proposed penalty of $7,000, issued against Calpine Corp. because access to the exposure was reasonably predictable.

For Cutting-Edge Strategies on Managing Risks and Slashing Insurance Costs visit www.StopBeingFrustrated.com

The ten most dangerous jobs

While it is generally known that the highest number of workplace fatalities occur among truck drivers and material moving occupations, the chances of a fatality are much higher in specific industries when the fatal work injury rate, calculated per 100,000 full-time equivalent workers, is used. According to a recent report in EHS Today, the ten most dangerous jobs are:

No. 1 – Loggers

The most-dangerous profession, loggers experienced 91 fatalities in 2016 for a fatality rate of 135.9 out of 100,000 workers, an increase of 33% since 2011, when it was ranked number two. Risks: falls, struck-by, dangerous tools such as chainsaws and axes

No. 2 – Fishers and related fishing workers

Fishermen experienced 24 fatalities in 2016 for a fatality rate of 86 out of 100,000 workers, which was a decline of 29% since 2011, when it was ranked number one. Risks: drowning, struck by lightning, crushed by equipment

No. 3 – Aircraft pilots and flight engineers

Pilots and flight engineers experienced 75 fatalities in 2016 for a fatality rate of 55.5 out of 100,000 workers, a slight drop from 2011. Risks: crashes

No. 4 – Roofers

Roofers experienced 101 fatalities in 2016 for a fatality rate of 48.6 out of 100,000 workers, an increase of 50% since 2011. Risks: falls, struck-by, and heat

No. 5 – Refuse and recyclable material collectors

Refuse and recyclable material collectors experienced 31 fatalities in 2016 for a fatality rate of 34.1 out of 100,000 workers, a decrease of 17% since 2011. Risks: dangerous machinery, crushed by equipment, struck-by, traffic accidents, struck by vehicle

No. 6 – Structural iron and steel workers

Steel and ironworkers experienced 16 fatalities in 2016 for a fatality rate of 25.1 out of 100,000 workers, a slight decrease from 2011. Risks: falls, struck-by, heat, crushed by materials

No. 7 – Truck drivers and other drivers

Employees who drive for work – including truck drivers – experienced 918 fatalities in 2016 for a fatality rate of 24.1 out of 100,000 workers, which is similar to 2011. Risks: traffic accidents, struck by vehicle, other drivers, construction zones, sleep deprivation, texting/talking while driving

No. 8 – Farmers, ranchers, and agricultural managers

Agricultural workers experienced 260 fatalities in 2016 for a fatality rate of 23.1 out of 100,000 workers, a slight decline from 2011. Risks: dangerous machinery, chemicals, heat

No. 9 – Supervisors of construction workers

First-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workers experienced 134 fatalities in 2016 for a fatality rate of 18 out of 100,000 workers. Risks: struck-by, falls at height and on level, heat, use of large equipment

No. 10 – Grounds maintenance workers

New to the list, grounds maintenance workers experienced 217 fatalities in 2016 for a fatality rate of 17.4 out of 100,000 workers. Risks: heat, cold, noise, chemical exposure, ergonomics-related issues, machinery

For Cutting-Edge Strategies on Managing Risks and Slashing Insurance Costs visit www.StopBeingFrustrated.com